I'm having issues with image paths in outlook 365 web blocking images, even though the domain is on the safe sender list. Inspecting the code, I see a base64 reference instead of the http:// image path that is in the original code, like so:
<img data-imagetype="External" src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAAAAAP///yH5BAEAAAEALAAAAAABAAEAAAIBTAA7" originalsrc="http://(etc...) >

This is not happening in Outlook desktop. Nor is it happening in personal 365 accounts, but is happening in multiple corporate 365 accounts (at different domains.) Any suggestions on how to fix? Thanks!