Recently we have had a spike in customers complaining that images are not loading in their emails. The problem has proven difficult to replicate. We finally had a customer forward to us what they are seeing and it appears that email clients are adding a max-width of 0 to some of the images in our email, causing them not to show up.

Has anyone else experienced this or found a potential fix?

Potentially related: The only change we have made recently is switching to the moderm