I'm trying to troubleshoot an issue I have with an email breaking on some occasions for Outlook 2013 120DPI. As shown in the images attached the alignment gets thrown off in 1 result and then aligns correctly in another even though the code is exactly the same.

I have added in the additional XML namespaces and normalised the PPI of the images with the conditional statement featured here but the results still remain inconsistent:

Anyone running into this issue that can shed a little light as to what's going on?

version 1
version 2