Hello Community,
This is perhaps a long shot, but I thought I'd test the waters about a Gmail problem I've been having.

My organization uses Marketo for our ESP, and we've recently been playing around with some of their advanced templates that are amazing for mobile responsiveness. Through testing the template looks great on literally every platform except Gmail on an iPhone (screenshot attached). There are multiple places where the hero image gets used in the code, which is perhaps causing the spilintering in the iPhone Gmail? But this structure seems to be highly effective for other mobile clients. I've attached screenshots of the gmail errors, and of the proper way it renders on mobile.
If you have any clues, let me know! I can also provide the code if you'd like to take a further look.

correct rendering:
correct rendering

rendering with errors: