Hi guys!
I've build an email that works fine for most of the email clients (with desktop fix for Gmail App),. I can see it properly on the native Android App (Android version: 5.1.1), but one of my clients is having trouble with it.

This is how it should look like on mobile:

This is how my client sees it (Android version: 4.4.2):

And how it looks when zoomed out:

Any ideas why this is happening? Can it be due to an old version of the app?
Any help will be appreciated! Thank you so much!