The following screenshot from Outlook 2016 seems as if Outlook had eaten some table cells. The HTML (see below) renders just fine in other clients. Do you have any idea what could be the problem?

Screenshot

HTML:

    <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
    <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
    <head>
        <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
        <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
        <meta name="format-detection" content="telephone=no">
        <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
    </head>
    <body style="background-color: #eeeeee; min-height: 1000px;" bgcolor="#eeeeee" text="#666666" link="#0000ff" yahoo="fix">
    <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="0" style="background-color: #eeeeee; width: 100%;" width="100%">
        <tbody>
            <tr>
                <td align="center">
                    <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="0" style="table-layout: fixed; width: 600px;">
                        <!-- Content -->
                        <tbody>
                            <tr>
                                <td style="background-color: #ffffff;">
                                    <table width="100%" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="0">
                                        <tbody>
                                            <tr>
                                                <td width="600" valign="">
                                                    <table width="100%" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="0">
                                                        <tbody>
                                                            <tr>
                                                                <td align="left">
                                                                    <table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="0" style="table-layout: fixed; width: 100%;">
                                                                        <tbody>
                                                                            <tr>
                                                                                <td style="font-size: 0px; line-height: 0px; mso-line-height-alt: 0; mso-margin-top-alt: 0px; width: 20px; height: 30px;" height="30" width="20">&shy;</td>
                                                                                <td style="font-size: 0px; line-height: 0px; mso-line-height-alt: 0; mso-margin-top-alt: 0px;height:30px;" height="30">&shy;</td>
                                                                                <td style="font-size: 0px; line-height: 0px; mso-line-height-alt: 0; mso-margin-top-alt: 0px;width: 20px; height: 30px;" height="30" width="20">&shy;</td>
                                                                            </tr>
                                                                            <tr>
                                                                                <td style="mso-line-height-alt: 0; mso-margin-top-alt: 0px; width: 20px; line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px;" width="20">&shy;</td>
                                                                                <td style="color: #666666; font-family: Arial; font-size: 14px; line-height: 130%;">
                                                                                    <span style="color: #677876; font-size: 26px;">Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet</span>
                                                                                </td>
                                                                                <td style="mso-line-height-alt: 0; mso-margin-top-alt: 0px; width: 20px;line-height: 0px; font-size: 0px;" width="20">&shy;</td>
                                                                            </tr>
                                                                            <tr>
                                                                                <td style="font-size: 0px; line-height: 0px; mso-line-height-alt: 0; mso-margin-top-alt: 0px;" height="0" width="20">&shy;</td>
                                                                                <td style="font-size: 0px; line-height: 0px; mso-line-height-alt: 0; mso-margin-top-alt: 0px;" height="0">&shy;</td>
                                                                                <td style="font-size: 0px; line-height: 0px; mso-line-height-alt: 0; mso-margin-top-alt: 0px;" height="0" width="20">&shy;</td>
                                                                            </tr>
                                                                        </tbody>
                                                                    </table>
                                                                </td>
                                                            </tr>
                                                        </tbody>
                                                    </table>
                                                </td>
                                            </tr>
                                        </tbody>
                                    </table>
                                </td>
                            </tr>
                        </tbody>
                    </table>
                </td>
            </tr>
        </tbody>
    </table>
    </body>
    </html>