Gmail makes my email wiggle, help!
First-timer here on the forums. Been working as an e-mail marketeer for the past two years, but haven't been losing as much hair as the past few weeks. The Gmail-app is currently driving me insane, as it is doing to many others. In my case, Gmail makes my e-mail wiggle like crazy. I've tried many methods, but none seem to work properly. This template I'm currently building works fine (for the most part) on almost any platformn, except for the Gmail-app. Do any of you know what could possibly be wrong in my code?
Any help will be appreciated!
Screenshot of the wiggle (taken on my HTC One M8, Android 5.0):
A scope of the mail:
(Link to builder: https://litmus.com/builder/cd1c304)